Open-angle glaucoma is the most common form. Some people have other types of the disease.
In low-tension or normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve damage and loss of vision may occur in people with normal eye pressure. Lowering eye pressure at least 30% through medicines slows the disease in some people. Glaucoma may
worsen in others despite low pressures.
A comprehensive medical history is important in identifying other potential risk factors, such as low blood pressure, that contribute to low-tension glaucoma. If no risk factors are identified, the treatment options for low-tension glaucoma are the same as for open-angle glaucoma.
In angle-closure glaucoma, the fluid at the front of the eye cannot reach the angle and leave the eye. People with this type of glaucoma have a sudden increase in eye pressure. Symptoms include severe pain and nausea, as well as redness of the eye and blurred vision. If you have these symptoms, you need to seek treatment immediately. This is a medical emergency. If your doctor is
unavailable, go to the nearest hospital or clinic.
In congenital glaucoma, children are born with a defect in the angle of the eye that slows the normal drainage of fluid. Surgery is the primary treatment because the structure of the drainage angle is so distorted. Also, glaucoma drugs may have unknown effects in infants and be difficult to give. If surgery is done promptly, these children usually have an excellent chance of having good vision.
Secondary glaucomas develop as a complication of other medical conditions. These glaucomas are associated with eye surgery or advanced cataracts, eye injuries, certain eye tumors, or uveitis (eye inflammation.) Corticosteroid drugs used to treat eye inflammations and other diseases can trigger glaucoma in some people. Treatment includes medicines, laser surgery, or conventional surgery.